Rebreathing systems are used for animals weighing over 10 pounds. The following diagram shows the parts of a rebreathing system which allows recirculation of exhaled gases to the animal. Each breath contains exhaled gas that has had the carbon dioxide removed and fresh oxygen and anesthetic added.
Oxygen source with pressure gauge - Oxygen is supplied to the animal. It also is the carrier gas that brings the inhaled anesthetic to the pet.
Pressure reducing valve - This valve decreases the high pressure from the oxygen tank to a usable level.
Flowmeter - This allows the anesthetist to determine the rate the oxygen will flow to the animal.
Oxygen flush valve - This valve allows oxygen to flow directly to the animal bypassing the anesthesia. It is used to quickly increase the amount of oxygen and decrease the anesthesia in the system. This is done at the end of the anesthesia or if the animal is at too deep of a plane of anesthesia during the surgery.
Vaporizer - The vaporizer converts the liquid anesthetic to a gas state and adds controlled amounts of the gas anesthetic to the oxygen that is flowing through the machine.
Inhalation valve - This allows the gases to flow only to the animal and not back to the vaporizer, by way of a one-way valve.
Inhalation hose - This hose carries the gases to the animal.
Connecting port - The rebreathing system has a Y piece which connects the inhalation hose, endotracheal tube, and exhalation hose.
Endotracheal tube - This tube is placed into the animal’s trachea (windpipe) to allow the oxygen and gases to be breathed into the lungs.
Exhalation hose - This hose carries the gases the animal breathed out back to the anesthetic machine.
Exhalation valve - This allows the exhaled gases to flow only into the anesthetic machine, not back to the animal, by way of a one-way valve.
Rebreathing (reservoir) bag - This is an inflatable rubber bag which allows the accumulation of fresh and expired gas during exhalation so that a reservoir of gas is available for the next breath. The bag also acts as a safety device to prevent rapid pressure increases in the system. It can be manually squeezed to ‘bag’ an animal as needed during surgery to assist breathing.
Pop-off valve - This is a pressure relief valve that allows the release of waste gases and extra pressure from the system into the scavenger hose.
Scavenger hose - This hose carries waste gases (e.g., oxygen, nitrous oxide, inhalation anesthetic, and carbon dioxide) out of the system and out of the building.
CO2 absorber canister - Any gases that do exit through the pop-off valve pass through the carbon dioxide absorber before returning to the animal. The chemicals in the container remove carbon dioxide from the gases that pass through it.
I’m totally going into work tomorrow and checking out all the parts of this system now that I better understand how it works!
Declawing is NOT that bad. CHILL. If it was completely awful, a lot of vets would refuse to do it. Just like vets will refuse to dock and crop dogs if they don’t want to do it. Almost all our cats have been declawed, and they never suffered because of it. -.-‘
I’m sure you could have your fingertips chopped off and not suffer too, but that doesn’t mean it’s something that should be done. Not only are you getting the cat’s digits stunted, but you’re removing their main method of defense and a tool they use for interacting with their environment.
There is no justifiable reason for mutilating an animal like that. People who get their cats declawed are irresponsible pet owners and should not be allowed to have cats. The operation should be illegal, unless as OP said, it is for a medical reason that would benefit the cat.
It’s not irresponsible, so shut up. Our cat is an indoor cat, therefore she had no use of her claws. I did not make the decision, my parents did. I most like would never declaw my own cat. Now, continue on raging about how horrid I am, while my cat reacts just fine to no claws and still loves me.
OP here, figured I should inform you politely that you are incorrect. Would you like to know why vets still do it? Because declawing alone in the USA brings in 4 billion dollars a year. Many of them make almost half of their income from declawing alone. And people are awful. They’ll do anything for a dollar. I also regret to inform you, but despite being an indoor cat, your cat still needs claws. Cats use their claws for everything. Including walking.. Which is pretty important to animals with legs. Did you know your cat does not walk the same as s/he used to? Because she does not have the ends of her toes. Which she used to walk on (cats are digitigrade), but now cannot because she’s had 10 (or 18) amputations. They use their claws to communicate, to balance, to stretch (which is really needed now that her walking is permanently altered), exercise, groom themselves, to do quite literally everything cats do. Not to mention, if your kitty did escape.. Which cats do.. She’d be done for. And the worst part of it all? It doesn’t benefit the cat at all. Only the humans. And I’d say that’s pretty irresponsible and selfish.
Declawing is a serious surgery. I know that this has been stated many times (in other posts) but it’s not just the claw that’s being removed, it’s the entire last bone in the toe / digit.
Look at your own hands. Everything past that last joint is what you’re taking off your cat. Anyone who’s had a bandage on their finger (spanning across a joint) knows how useless that finger becomes. The thing is, we still have 4 other fingers on that hand to use (and the other fully-functioning hand). Now imagine bandaging all your fingers at that last joint. Sure, you can still use your hands / fingers but it’s not the same. You’ve lost a lot of mobility / dexterity. The same happens to your cat. That last bone isn’t just a claw. It’s used to maintain balance, to walk, run, jump.
The last bone (P3) in a cat’s paw lies deep to the soft “squishy” digital pad. Without its P3s your cat has to walk on its knuckles. This continual, abnormal pressure not only causes pain to the foot but also affects their posture leading to back pain. You can also get a number of other post-op problems including haemorrhage, infection, lameness, P2 protrusion (where P2 eventually pokes out of the foot), and intermittent lameness (from both the pain and loss of function).
“But with spays and neuters we’re removing something from them too.. how’s this different?”
Other than the fact that this surgery has completely changed the way they move, putting pressure on structures that can’t support it and that testicles / ovaries are not required for basic activities.. the blood supply to their toes is more developed than the blood vessels supplying their immature sex organs (if desexing is performed before sexual maturity which is why complication increase with age for neuters).
Oh and don’t forget those phantom pains some human amputees experience. Cat physiology isn’t all that different to ours so I wouldn’t be surprised if a number of them experience this too. This pain would be in addition to the actual pain of using their disfigured paws. And nerve cells are bratty little things.. Piss it off by amputating it and you can get little tumourous balls of pain (traumatic neuromas). These already hurt (documented cases in dogs with docked tails).. but now the cat needs to put pressure on them in order to get from one place to another.
“But but their behaviour hasn’t changed at all! They’re not in pain. They’re still the same happy cats we’ve always had.”
Animals, especially cats, hide their pain. Despite being domesticated for thousands of years they’re still hunters and in order to survive they mask pain / sickness for as long as possible. Survival of the fittest and all that jazz. And depending on when the surgery was done you may not notice a change in behaviour. You might attribute it to your rebellious kitten “maturing” into a calmer adult cat, when in actual fact it’s the pain that’s preventing your cat from doing cat things.
With information just a click away there is really no excuse for ignorance. There are options out there (eg soft paws). And if you introduce nail trimming at a young age, it’ll be super easy, quick, and stress-free.
“Well ok.. If it’s so bad why do vets keep doing it?”
While animals are our patients, our clients are the owners. And as bad as this sounds a veterinary clinic is a business. There are lots of bills to pay. Contrary to popular belief vets don’t make very much. (But that’s a whole ‘nother thing.) Turning away a client doesn’t simply mean a loss in revenue for that particular procedure. It includes all future vet appointments, all future pets, all possible referals. Personally I don’t think I could put a cat through that kind of lifelong pain (and many of the vets who do struggle with their decision) but then again I’m still a student. I haven’t gotten to the stage where I need to pay back my $250,000 loan yet. Once I graduate.. will I be able to turn away a client who, even after being told the risks and complications, is still adamantly pushing for the procedure? I don’t know. I’d like to think I can / will but I don’t know. And I’ll only be able to make this decision if I’m a partner at or own the clinic. If I’m working for a vet who does offer this service then I would be risking my job when I turn away the declaw client. Don’t get me wrong. It would be great if veterinary bodies around the world banned this altogether but until they do there will always be “the other vet” who will perform the procedure.
Last week, Paul Ryan gave an interview in which, defending his position that there should be no excuses for abortion, he referred to rape as a “method of conception.”
Wow, right? Talk about a benign euphemism. Rape —RAPE! — is now a “method of conception.” You know, like love-making, just without the love.
There could be no greater testament to the utter abdication of responsibility by what passes for a “news” media in America in 2012 than that, despite the grotesquerie of this cavalierly callous comment, chances are better than good that this is the first you’re hearing of it.
Here, watch it — and try to figure out why this has gotten NO MAINSTREAM MEDIA play (not even here at the Huffington Post) despite it being, to my mind, a far more offensive remark than Todd Akin’s imbecilic blurt of last weekend. What, are we tired of stupid remarks about rape now, so Ryan gets a free pass?
Given the demands for Akin’s resignation from a mere Senate race when his musings on “legitimate rape” were publicized, what do you imagine the reaction would be if people were as familiar with VP wannabe Ryan’s stunning statement? Might there be a cacophony of outrage? Might there be calls for his resignation from the ticket? Might there be a focus on how fundamentally oblivious these people who would make our laws are to not just women’s but humans’ rights and dignity? Sure, there might, but then of course people would have to have heard about it.
According to the man who would be the proverbial heartbeat away from the White House, and who in any event would — given Romney’s utter hollowness — have an inordinate influence on the judicial appointments that will determine how much freedom our children get to live under, RAPE = “METHOD OF CONCEPTION.” And yet, unless you’re a frequenter of one of a dozen or so lefty blogs — or my friend on Facebook — you probably knew nothing about it.
I truly despair for the country my 14-year-old daughter is inheriting. That a remark this intensely revealing of the danger posed by this ticket can go basically unreported is as nauseating to me as the quote itself.
YOU awesome readers heard about, because I love you enough to keep you in the loop. I don’t know what the rest of the media is doing with their time.
And so, again following the advice of a far wiser breeder than I, when people ask me how much my puppies are, I tell them “They’re free. Or, if it makes you feel more comfortable, they’re whatever the price of an average shelter adoption is in your neighborhood. When and if we decide that this is a good match and you decide to get a puppy from me, you’ll be writing me a check for [whatever it is], but that check is actually buying ME. You are paying for the right to call me, any time of the day or night, for the life of this dog. You’re paying for me to be your training assistant, your dedicated boarding kennel, your vet advocate, and your nutritional consultant. You are paying me a research fee for making an educated and smart decision about which dog to breed to which dog. And you’re paying me a retainer so that at any time in your dog’s life I will take back that dog, no questions asked, no matter the situation, and you’re paying me to take some very difficult decisions off your hands.”
really good read.
seriously people, there ARE quality, responsible breeders out there.