Roaring contest- red deer stag (Cervus elaphus)
The ability to keep roaring at a high rate is an honest signal of the male’s likely ability to win a fight because roaring itself is an exhausting signal. Only stags strong enough to fight long and hard will be strong enough to roar long and hard.
This diagram depicts the sequence of events in roaring contests between red deer stags. As the stags approach each other, they may challenge each other by roaring as an indication of fighting ability. The roaring contest may lead to one stag withdrawing or to “parallel walking”, which may or may not then lead to actual fighting. In this diagram, each line represents one encounter.